The Nine Muses

The 9 MUSES in fact where 9 MUSEUMS of information (libraries? also called ΜΑΝΤΕΙΑ(=ORACLE).
ORACLES were many such places in the ancient Greek world, most notably at Delphi,
Didyma on the coast of Asia Minor, Dodona in Epirus, and Olympia.

 1) ΜΕΛΠΟΜΕΝΗ  -   Melpomene
 2) ΤΕΡΨΙΧΟΡΗ  -   Terpsichore
 3) ΠΟΛΥΜΝΙΑ   -  Polymnia
 4) ΚΑΛΛΙΟΠΗ   -  Calliope
 5) ΕΥΤΕΡΠΗ   -   Euterpe
 6) ΟΥΡΑΝΙΑ  -   Ourania
 7) ΘΑΛΕΙΑ   -   Thalia
 8) ΕΡΑΤΩ   -   Erato
 9) ΚΛΕΙΩ   -  Clio

   World wide information kept in safety to recall them when needed. Greek historian Hesiod lines 38-40: «είρουσαι τά τ' εόντα τά τ' εσσόμενα πρό τ' εόντα, φωνή ομηρεύσαι τών δ' ακάματος ρέει αυδή εκ στομάτων ηδεία...». (=people seeking information from the muses, the information was read to the people exactly as it was written, with the only difference that the muses had to create poems and sing it to their clients because the majority of the people where illiterate, and it is easier to remember a poem than the actual words, the word ομηρεύσαι (=captured, kept, stored) indicating that the words where written and stored in safety.

    The 9 muses         Ruins of Delphi     Erato-Polimnia-Melpomeni

  The Nine Muses have been inspiring artists since the antiquity and there countless paintings, drawings, designs, poems and statues dedicated to them. All artists of the Renaissance acknowledged their importance in artistic creation, dedicating their works to the Muses. Today, the most famous depiction of the Muses in sculpture is in Greece, in Corfu; the Empress Sissi of Austria had their statues made for her, in order to ornament the garden of her retreat house in Corfu, the famous Achilleion.


(=MELPOMENE) ΜΕΛ=MEL=melodrama (acting), ΠΟ=πόσις PO=posis (=wine drinking) «Greek tragedy» the word tragedy is related to ancient times, τράγος (=tragos the male goat (billy-goat), (trag+odi= τραγ+ωδί=acting and sinning). Goat herdsmen of the Greek mountains often under wine influence, dress with goat skins to perform and amuse them selves acting as male goats with at first unpleasant comic sexual behavior, the idea led to gradual evolution of a proper musical - theatrical prototype. The muse is pictured in an acting position, standing holding Hercules club, and she wears a mask of him. Oracle MELPOMENE was teaching theater, enriching heroism to the young and high spirit to others Melpomene: Opposite from Thalia, Muse Melpomene was the protector of Tragedy; she invented tragedy, rhetoric speech and Melos.


ΤΕΡΨΙΧΟΡΗ (=TERPSICHORE) TERPSI= pleasure, satisfaction, happiness CHORE=chorus, sing and dance, she is always following MELPOMENE in the theatre. She teaches music and dance. the lyre (guitar) symbol of divination to God Apollo.  
Terpsichore: was the protector of dance; she invented dances, the harp and education. She was called Terpsichore because she was enjoying and having fun with dancing ( “Terpo” in Greek refers to be amused). She was depicted wearing laurels on her head, holding a harp and dancing.


(=POLYMNIA) POLY=the greatness of a substance, YMNIA emerges from the word
ΥΦ-ΥΦΑΙΝΩ(=weave) weaving words and writings of information as well in tapestry. In Homer (Ιλιάς Ζ 169-170) we read «Γράψας (Γράψας=he wrote - writes) εν πινάκι πτυκτώ θυμοφθόρα πολλά» [he wrote fearfully events on double wooden plaques and he folded them]. Museum Polymnia was a work place of weaving writings and storing the information. Polymnia portrayed with her finger-pointer in front of her mouth symbolizing silence. Oracle Polymnia was the protector of the divine hymns and mimic art; she invented geometry and grammar. She was depicted looking up to the Sky, holding a lyre.


ΚΑΛΛΙΟΠΗ (=CALLIOPE) KALLI (=good, right, brilliant, etc., OPE=open eye, broad vision. The many languages of Greece Achaea, Crete, Dorea, Cydon, Pelasgia originating from Zeus era causing confusion. The museum CALLIOPE considered as the greatest offer, sorting out the many words of the seamen to be understood by the people of the mountains and vice versa and in all regions and trades, and to create a common dictionary. ΓΛΩΣΣΑ(=GLOSSA=toque=language=knowledge) the knowledge of many words to rise the level of civilization. CALLIOPE portrayed seated in a thinking position her elbow resting on her knee, holding pen feather and plaques, her appearance showed that she was ready to read those plaques. (the Greek writing is as old since the appearance of Zeus more than 15.000 years old, long before the appearance of the Phoenicians). Muse Calliope was the superior Muse. She was accompanying kings and princes in order to impose justice and serenity. She was the protector of heroic poems and rhetoric art. According to the myth, Homer asks from Calliope to inspire him while writing Iliad and Odyssey, and, thus, Calliope is depicted holding laurels in one hand and the two Homeric poems in the other hand.


ΕΥΤΕΡΠΗ (=EUTERPE) EY=EU(=good, happy, enjoy) ΤΕΡΠΗ(= pleasurable, satisfied) The happy muse related with teaching music, dancing, wine making, and she is close related with Bacchus (=Dionysus) her music is the bag-pipes, double-pipes, and the flute. She kept information of all kinds of traditional music of her known world. Muse Euterpe discovered several musical instruments, courses and dialectic. She was always depicted holding a flute, while many instruments were always around her.


ΟΥΡΑΝΙΑ (=OURANIA) (=URANUS=SKY) In Theogony=Greek Genesis «historian Hesiod (800-750 b.c.) conceded that the information of Theogony came from the muses of the Heliconian mountains (Oracle)». (At first there was Chaos after the Erebus and the night next the daylight next the sky the Earth and Eros).... «THEOGONY is a mythological code of facts but not a religion, the pre-philosophic and pre-scientific progress of the Paleolithic Greeks» At the beginning existed the CHAOS, GAEA (=matter) and EROS (attractiveness=gravity), from Chaos begat Erebus and the Night and from those two begat the Ether (a substance permitting light to travel) and the day-light. At the same time begets the Gaea (Earth) including the Uranus (=sky+stars), and from those two begets the Ocean, Coeus, Creaeus, Hyperion (=Galaxy), Iapetus, and Cronus including the Cyclopes Brontes, Steropes, and Arges (the TITANS). Thaea, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne (=memory), Phoebe, Tethys (the TITANESS). Muse Ourania was the protector of the celestial objects and stars; she invented astronomy. She was always depicted bearing stars, a celestial sphere and a bow compass.


ΘΑΛΕΙΑ (=THALEIA) ΘΑ=ΤΗΑ= oversee, attend, observe sea and land weather conditions. She was teaching people fishing, stock breeding, agriculture and the technique of managing seedlings and nursing plants. She also advising seamen to understand weather conditions and to observe the constellation of Pleiades and the Star Orion, Sirius, and Ursa Major. She was teaching the preparation of works to be done on the changing of the seasons [when the stars Orion and Sirius reach the centre of the sky, and the Ursa Major facing the morning star it is time to vine harvest and bring all the grapes home. (Hesiod Έργα και ημέρες lines 609-611)]. Her appearance with garland of vine, dressed in kirtle holding in one hand Dionysus mask and a teaching-stick in the other. Muse Thalia was the protector of comedy; she discovered comedy, geometry, architectural science and agriculture. She was also protector of Symposiums. She was always depicted holding a theatrical – comedy mask.


ΕΡΑΤΩ (=ERATO) EROS=The union of male and female. Teaching morality and bashfulness to young women and the obligations towards marriage. Wedding is an old Greek tradition introducing the ceremony with the gathering of people to witness, the Greek invention of the white wedding dress symbolized the purity of the bride. According to Athenian law, allowed the marriage of one man one woman for raising children. ERATO pictured naked (symbol of fertility) holding a lyre. Muse Erato was the protector of Love and Love Poetry – as well as wedding. Her name comes from the Greek word “Eros” that refers to the feeling of falling in love. She was depicted holding a lyre and love arrows and bows. Erato was the muse of lyrical poetry particularly love poems and songs. She can be identified from the rest of the muses by the white flowers and roses wrapped around her head like a crown. She is also the one who holds the Lyre. Sometimes she is shown holding the Kithara which is a musical instrument that her and Apollo invented together. Her bestfriend is Eros (sometimes called cupid). Erato would carry around golden arrows that she would give to her friend Eros who would shoot them at people making them fall in love with the first thing they would see. Erato and Eros would wonder all over striking people with inspiring love poems and then would make them fall in love.


ΚΛΕΙΩ (=CLEIO - Muse of history) from the word κλείω (=closing - locking) forbidding intruders to historical records of a state. In this museum were kept information of the past, the present, and to predict with statistics the future, in her statue is attached a codex and in one hand holding a trumpet to hum the famous events, and in the other a hourglass to sing out the past of historical events. The Muse Clio discovered history and guitar. History was named Clio in the ancient years, because it refers to “kleos” the Greek word for the heroic acts. Clio was always represented with a clarion in the right arm and a book in the left hand.

Stratis Hatgivlastis