Arthur Evans & Discovery
Early Bronze Age or Early Minoan (EM): 3000-2100 BCE
Middle Bronze Age or Middle Minoan (MM): 2100-1600 BCE
Late Bronze Age or Late Minoan (LM): 1600-1100 BCE
The above divisions were subsequently refined by adding numbered subphases to each group (e.g. MM II). Radio-carbon dating and tree-ring calibration techniques have helped to further refine the dates so that the Early Bronze Age now begins c. 3500 BCE and the Late Bronze Age c. 1700 BCE. An alternative to this series of divisions, created by Platon, instead focuses on the events occurring in and around the major Minoan “palaces”. This scheme has four periods:
Prepalatial: 3000 - 2000/1900 BCE
Protopalatial: 2000/1900 - 1700 BCE
Neopalatial: 1700 - 1470/1450 BCE
Postpalatial: 1470/1450 - 1100 BCE
Both of these schemes have since been challenged by more modern archaeology and approaches to history and anthropology in general which prefer a more multilinear development of culture on Crete with a more complex scenario involving conflicts and inequalities between settlements and which also considers their cultural differences as well as their obvious similarities.
|Phoenicians sea-going traders, and merchants adopting the Greek
Alphabet, and introducing it to other countries, giving the
impression that the Alphabet was Phoenician, for this responsible
was Greek historian Herodotus, a writer of not significant evidence
Plato describing Phoenicians as good seamen with no other skill, they did not leave civilization of intellectual and spiritual heritage.
Homer's (Odyssey Ξ. 287- 290)
[...but, when the eighth year came, a Phoenician, untrustworthy man, con artist, approached me....]
...αλλ' ότε δή ογδοόν μοι επιπλόμενον έτος ήλθε, δή τότε Φοίνιξ ήλθεν ανήρ απατήλια ειδώς, τρώκτης, ός δή πολλά κάκ` ανθρώποισιν εώργει.
Homer's (Odyssey Ο. 415 - 417)
There seamen Phoenicians arrived, well known thieves, with lots of fandangles in their ship.
Ένθα δέ Φοίνικες ναυσίκλυτοι ήλυθον άνδρες, τρώκται, μυρί' άγοντες αθύρματα νηί μελαίνη·.....
Herodotus (484-425 B.C.)
the two men who killed Hipparchus belonged...I have myself looked into the matter and find that they were really Phoenicians.
(Evidence that the Greek writing is older than the Phoenicians)
|Homer's (Iliad Z. 169-170)
«Γράψας έν πίνακι πτυκτό θυμοφθόρα πολλά» (Γράψας=he writes - write)
We read: [Pritos with aggravating thought to revenge Velerofontes betrayal to Pritos hospitability, as an adulterer,
he writes fearfully events, on double wooden plaques and he folded them, he send them with Velerofontes to Pritos father-in-law for Velerofontes bad doings, Pritos knew that Velerofontes could not read!!!. and would be punished from Pritos father-in-law.]
|Homer's (Odyssey E. 299-333-335) «Τον
δέ ίδεν Κάδμου
πρίν μέν έην
δ' αλός εν
«Odysseus on his despair fighting the sea and almost drowned, Cadmus daughter Eno emerged from the sea, long before she was mortal with human voice, but now in the seas she is honored as a Goddess».
|The myth of Europe and its variations:
Starting off as a mortal woman in Greek Mythology, Europe became immortal after her name was given to the continent. One legend says that Europe had a dream one night in which two women – actually two continents –were arguing. One of them, Asia, believed that Europe belonged to Asia, since she was born there. The other one with no name -Europe - said Zeus would give the name to her.
The myth of Europe and Zeus has some slightly different variations about the details of how they met and how the bull seduced her. What all of them have in common is that Zeus one day saw Europe among other young women and was so struck by her beauty and her charms that he, known as the God with many love affairs, decided to take her for himself. His plan was to turn himself into a white bull and swim to the shore of Asia where she lived.
The bull was so pretty and gentle that all women at the shore fell for him. But he bent in front of Europe offering her his back to ride. She mounted on his back and the bull took her from Phoenicia, across the sea, to Crete, to Dikteon Andron, the cave where he was born. That is where he showed his real identity to Europe.
|The Phoenician Alphabet|